Wildrice (Zizania palustris L.) is an annual aquatic emergent plant primarily distributed across portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Canada. Wildrice requires narrow environmental conditions that vary throughout its life cycle. Environmental conditions required include water levels between 15 and 90 cm, slow flowing water, anaerobic soil, and circum-neutral pH. Wildrice production and abundance is most often limited by nitrogen availability. Both short- and long-term changes in local conditions impact distribution and abundance of wildrice at local and regional scales. Reported declines in wildrice production have increased interest in evaluating changing environmental conditions, specifically within the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Wildrice, or manoomin, is an important food and cultural resource, and remains important to native peoples throughout the region, including the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. This report provides a review of literature related to wildrice and examines potential factors affecting its production in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. This report highlights cultural and traditional values, functions and values of wildrice, and unique chemical and physical aspects of the environment where wildrice grow. Additionally, this report synthesizes the data gathered in the literature review, identifies knowledge gaps, and provides research opportunities for improved wildrice production in the Great Lakes region.