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Evolution of Mongolian National Security Strategy and Foreign Policy: Objectives, Opportunities, Challenges and Potential Applicability


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Mongolia's geographical position imposes certain restrictions on its formulation and implementation of foreign policy. Sharing a state border with two superpowers - Russia and China - Mongolia must consider these states as priority areas of its policy. To understand the trends of Mongolias present foreign policy, it is important to look at the countrys history. This thesis explores the evolution of Mongolian strategy and foreign policy, paying particular attention to the post-1990 period after its democratic revolution. For the first time since the Mongol Empire, historical circumstances provided Mongolia the opportunity to pursue its foreign policy independently. This policy, known as the "Third Neighbor Policy," aims to develop relations with states that do not have a common border with Mongolia to help maintain its independence, national security, and sovereignty. Furthermore, this thesis identifies ways for Mongolia to maintain and improve the current level of relations in terms of balancing three bilateral foreign engagements, namely with Russia, China, and a "third neighbor." In addition, it provides valuable information on how other small countries can cooperate with the rest of the world and international organizations to protect their own national security, sovereignty, and independence.



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