The GRU is a large, expansive organization under the command of Russia's Ministry of Defense and Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu. Headed since 2018 by Admiral Igor Kostyukov, the GRU plays an important role in Russia's foreign and national security policies. As an arm of the military, the GRU is responsible for all levels of military intelligence, from tactical to strategic. The GRU commands Russia's spetsnaz (special forces) brigades, which conduct battlefield reconnaissance, raiding, and sabotage missions, in addition to training and overseeing local proxies or mercenary units. Additionally, the GRU conducts traditional intelligence missions through the recruitment and collection of human, signals, and electronic assets. Beyond its traditional combat- and intelligence-related roles, the GRU conducts extensive cyber, disinformation, propaganda, and assassination operations. These operations are often aggressive and brazen, leading to publicity and the exposure of GRU culpability.