This monograph examines relations between NATO and Russia since the end of the Cold War. It examines the institutional NATO-Russia relationship, as well as member states' bilateral relations with Russia. The monograph highlights Russia's perspective of the West in terms of its perceptions of its own security. It concludes that, in between short periods of rapprochement, Western actions, particularly those of the United States and US-led military operations, have played a significant role in contributing to the deterioration of the relationship. It determines that these actions were based on: unrealistically high expectations of what Russia could achieve through economic and political reforms during the 1990s; a persistent underestimation of Russia's ambition to restore its great power status; fundamental differences of opinion in foreign policy aims and the importance that the West attaches to its values; and the pursuit of Western aims, particularly through the use of military force, when Russia was too weak to prevent them. It also shows that Russian actions under Vladimir Putin have had an adverse influence, particularly his adoption of authoritarian methods to restore state control in Russia and coercive measures to achieve foreign policy objectives abroad.