The primary objective of the Telephone Delivery of Cognitively Augmented Behavioral Activation (Tele-CABA) intervention with Veterans who have a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is to reduce their negative cognitive and psychiatric health outcomes and promote personal resilience. The long-term objective of this study is to develop an accessible and acceptable intervention that can be broadly disseminated to address the complex rehabilitation needs within this population of Veterans. Participants will be Veterans and Service members with a history of TBI enrolled for health services at any VA medical center or satellite program. A total of 192participants will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly assigned to either the treatment (Tele-CABA) or a usual-care control group (UC). Participants randomly assigned to the Tele-CABA group will receive the manualized intervention delivered by telephone over the course of 10 weekly, 90-minute sessions. Participants in the UC group will continue to receive their regular medical, psychiatric, and psychotherapeutic care. All participants will undergo evaluation at baseline, post-treatment, and 6-months following the completion of treatment. At baseline, participants will complete a diagnostic TBI interview, self-report questionnaires measuring cognitive and psychiatric symptom severity including the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and a brief cognitive screening battery. Self-report questionnaires and cognitive testing will be repeated at post-treatment and follow-up. We will evaluate the following primary outcomes: cognitive symptoms, psychiatric distress symptoms, utility of compensatory strategies, self-efficacy, adaptive functioning, quality of life, and treatment satisfaction.