Between 2005 and 2016, Li-ion battery sales grew from 8 GWh per year to 89 GWh per year, largely driven by the increased demand for electric vehicles (EVs). EVs continue to gain in popularity - over a million were sold in 2017, and single-year sales are projected to rise to 10 million passenger vehicles in 2025, and 28 million in 2030. These EV sales projections will directly translate into additional battery production; by 2028, global Li-ion battery production is expected to reach 1200-1600 GWh, roughly 15 times 2016 levels. Li-ion battery production is an increasingly important part of the automotive economy. Many different chemistries can be employed in a Li-ion battery. The properties of these batteries such as their energy-carrying capacity, weight, power output, longevity, and safety are critically dependent on the underlying chemistry of the battery, as well as the design of specific components in the battery such as the anodes, cathodes, electrolyte, and separator. Battery system design is a key discriminator between EV manufacturers, because it directly affects the EV's performance, driving range, and cost. Significant battery research and development (R and D) is taking place across the globe to improve battery characteristics.