First (1918 -1941), and second Yugoslavia (1945 -1991) represent the only period of time in Croatia's fourteen hundred years long history when Croatia did not have its own Armed Forces. Instead, Croats served in the Yugoslav People Army YPA (Jugoslavenska Narodna Armija JNA) as conscripts for a year at minimum since it was mandatory. Not many Croats became professional NCOs or Officers in YPA because it required membership in Yugoslav Communist Party YCP, and Croats traditionally were religious. As a result, at the beginning of Homeland War (1991 -1995), Croats were not only poorly equipped, but also lacked professional chain of command. To organize an Army able to defend Croatia against Serbs and YPA, Croats had to take the model they were familiar with. That was the model of YPA.