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Design of a 3D Mammography System in the Age of Personalized Medicine


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Many medical centers now offer 3D mammography for breast cancer screening. However, there continues to be a high recallrate after screening, so most women that are recalled are ultimately found to be cancer-free. Also, call-back studies such asmagnification mammography continue to rely on conventional 2D techniques, and have not advanced in parallel with 3Dscreening mammography. We use virtual clinical trials (VCTs) with computational phantoms to evaluate new designs forscreening and magnification mammography. To date, our VCTs with Defrise phantoms demonstrated the advantage ofpersonalized scan motions, which are customized to each patient. These new designs offer improvements in the visualizationof fibroglandular tissue, which can hide a tumor. Additionally, x-ray experiments were performed with high-resolution testpatterns in magnification mammography. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of introducing 3D imagingtechniques into this study. Additionally, we made advancements to the underlying technology used in VCTs; e.g., thealgorithm for inserting calcifications (lesions that can act as an early sign of cancer). Finally, we developed a detector modelfor use in VCTs; this model more accurately simulates how resolution changes over the detector area due to spatial variationin the incidence angle.



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