Writing about the profession of arms in a February 2012 white paper, then-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff GEN Martin Dempsey wrote, "We must continue to learn, to understand, and to promote the knowledge, skills, attributes, and behaviors that define us as a profession." In January 2014, the U.S. Air Force announced an investigation into officers of the 341st Missile Wing who were alleged to have cheated on a proficiency exam. In February 2014, the U.S. Navy announced an investigation into cheating by trainers at a school for nuclear power reactor operators. These examples highlight behaviors that most would agree are unbecoming to the military profession. In March 2014, in response to these and other ethical lapses by military personnel, thenSecretary of Defense Chuck Hagel announced the appointment of RADM Margaret Klein to be his special assistant for military professionalism. In this report, we consider the U.S. Air Force definition of professionalism-"A personal commitment and loyalty to Air Force standards and expectations framed within an environment of shared trust, guided by Air Force Core Values" as a starting point to address the question: What can the Air Force do to increase its professionalism? The research reported here was commissioned by the vice commander of U.S. Air Force Air Education and Training Command and conducted within the Manpower, Personnel, and Training Program of RAND Project AIR FORCE as part of a fiscal year 2015 project titled, "Air Force Professional Development." This report is intended for leaders of all ranks throughout the Air Force.