On January 24, 2013, thenDefense Secretary Leon E. Panetta announced an end to the ban on women in combat. As of January 1, 2016, the armed services must implement efforts to provide equal opportunities regardless of gender. The public nature of the announcement has likely affected potential recruits' views of the military in as yet unknown ways. To provide an early perspective on these effects and how the services and the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness (OUSD/P and R) can adapt, OUSD/P and R asked RAND to conduct a study exploring these issues. The ultimate goal of the study was to identify approaches for bolstering female recruitment while ground combat jobs are transitioning to include women.