This project focuses on developing a methodology to accurately assess the time-temperature-kill relationships for spores under the exposure to biocidal agents. We will determine the relative role of thermal vs. biocidal stress and synergistic effects if any. Using energetic components that will yield biocidal agents in the reaction product, we will assess the reaction dynamics, post-analysis of the solid and gaseous products and correlate this with biocidal activity. We will conduct dynamic heating experiments to characterize by various microscopy and mass spectrometry methods, physical and chemical damage to spores. The kill mechanism for spores from short thermal pulses will be investigated for cellular or DNA damage. We will utilize data from the kill mechanism to rationally design more effective energetic biocide combinations.