The excess path loss statistics averaged through a 50 Hz bandwidth filter from a satellite to a land mobile platform are shown to be described by two modes, the signal shadowed mode and the two path summation mode. The latter is characterized by a mean near 0 dB and a standard deviation near 2 dB, and the former by a mean that is near 15 dB in the steel canyons of the city, 12 dB in an urban environment, 6.5 dB in a suburban environment and a standard deviation near 5 dB. The characteristics of the signal shadowed mode are very much like traditional terrestrial multipath land mobile propagation. The percent of time spent in each mode is a function of elevation, and varies from 0 percent two path summation when the elevation is near 0 degrees, approaching 100 percent when the elevation is near 90 degrees.
This article is from 'Proceedings of the Antenna Applications Symposium Held on 25-27 September 1991. Volume 1,' AD-A253 682, p455-473.