ALFRED WEGENER INST FOR POLAR AND MARINE RESEARCH BREMERHAVEN (GERMANY)
In September and October 1989 during the Winter Weddell Gyre Study energy balance measurements were performed from the Soviet ice-breaker Akademik Fedorov. The average radiation balance of the sea ice surface turned out to be zero, i.e., short-wave radiation gains were, fully compensated by long-wave radiation losses. Due to turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat the atmosphere received about 25 W m-2 energy from the iceocean system. Since no significant ice melting or freezing was observed, the latter must originate mainly from warm deep water which is entrained into the oceanic mixed layer.
This article is from 'Proceedings of the International Conference on the Role of whe Polar Regions in Global Change Held in Fairbanks, Alaska on 11-15 June 1990. Volume 1', AD-A253 027, p325-329. See also Volume 2, AD-A253 028.