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Inside the Cone of Protection
PRC SYSTEMS SERVICES CO KENNEDY SPACE CENTER FL
Although lightning cones of protection and cones of attraction have been used for over 100 years, much confusion still remains as to their effectiveness, particularly as applied to personnel protection. At Kennedy Space Center, a 11 cone of protection with a straight side is standard for structure or equipment protection. However, at the launch pad, where a 400-foot lightning lightning rod on top of an insulating mast is used for pad lightning protection, the idea developed that personnel within a 400-foot radius of this mast would be safe from lightning and those outside it would not. Since it is obvious that a person 395 feet 120.4 m. from the mast is only slightly safer than one at 405 feet 123.5 m., an investigation was initiated to calculate the probabilities of a person being struck by lightning as he moves closer to the mast inside the cone of protection. Since the risk does not go to zero outside the structure, the risk level can then be estimated. To arrive at the expected strike frequency, it was necessary to measure the strike frequencies at KSC. Krider and others have found a mean area density of cloud-to-ground lightning at KSC of about 4.6 or - 3.1 flashes per sq km per month in the summer. An overall frequency is estimated as about 20 flashes per sq km per year. With these data, the risk of exposure at various distances from the lightning mast can be calculated. Assuming continuous exposure during thunderstorms, this risk varies from about one strike per person in 1,400 years near the tower to one stroke per person in 300 years at about 400 foot 122 m..
This article is from 'International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity (8th): 'Lightning Technology Roundup,' held at Fort Worth, Texas on 21-23 June 1983,' ADA135100, p27-1 thru 27-7.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.