One of the pillars of our national security strategy is reconstitution. If the United States is to reconstitute its forces for a future conflict, it will be necessary to be able to mobilize all segments of the society. African Americans suffer from many serious physical and socioeconomic problems that could prevent the United States from achieving as much from them as from other segments of the population. Poor health is one of the major problems that could limit the contributions of blacks to any full-scale reconstitution effort. What can be done about it What, if anything, ought to be the role of the Department of Defense in solving the problem This paper examines some of the leading causes of deaths of African Americans in the United States. It also examines ways to prevent and control serious health and social problems. Chronic diseases and major social health problems have already deprived many African Americans of quality of life and longevity.