The Department of Defense directed all branches of the military to establish smoking prevention and cessation programs DoD Dir 1010.10, 11 Mar NOTAL. Smoking prevention and cessation programs were implemented and evaluated in recruit training. Four groups of incoming recruits were compared an education group, a no-smoking group, a health risk appraisal feedback group, and no-treatment control group. Smoking behavior, perceptions related to smoking, and knowledge about smoking were assessed. Recruits in the education and no- smoking groups were less likely to start smoking during recruit training than recruits in the control group. There were no differences between the intervention groups and the control group for the number of former smokers who started smoking again. The education group had fewer smokers stop smoking than the control group. The one-year follow-up evaluation needs to be conducted before the long-term effects of these programs on prevention and cessation of smoking can be determined.