The current capability of the United States Department of Defense DOD to deploy and sustain military forces worldwide is dependent upon a mixture of airlift, land transportation, and sealift forces--the defense transportation system. Transportation is a key factor of any nations military ability. Because of the critical role of transportation in our national defense, it is important to study the evolution of the defense transportation system and analyze the cause and effect relationships of major problem areas within the present system. This thesis examines various Department of Defense DOD transportation issues relating to the Military Sealift Command MSC, Military Airlift Command MAC, and the Military Traffic Management Command MTMC. Specifically, a history of the MSC, the demise of breakbulk shipping, and its impact on strategic sealift requirements are discussed a history of the MAC, its reliance on the civil airline industry for augmentation of organic airlift resources Civil Reserve Air Fleet CRAF program, and the status of the CRAF are reviewed and a history of the MTMC, its rationale for owning rail assets, and the feasibility of a CRAF-type program for rail are examined. Additionally, a brief overview of the newly organized United States Transportation Command USTRANSCOM and its impact on the Transportation Operating Agencies is provided. Keywords Logistics Combat readiness Deployment.