Coincident ground-based and satellite observations are presented of a premidnight auroral surge over Amundsen-Scott South Pole station. The set of near-simultaneous measurements provides an excellent opportunity to gain amore quantitative understanding of the nature of premidnight substorm activity at high geomagnetic latitudes. The surge produced a rapid onset of cosmic radio noise absorption at the station. On the polar-orbiting DMSP-F6 spacecraft, intense X-ray emissions with E 2 keV energy were imaged 1 to 2 deg magnetically equatorward of the South Pole approximately 1 min prior to the peak of the absorption event. The precipitating electron spectrum determined from the X-ray measurements could be characterized by an e-folding energy of approx. 11 keV and is found to be adequate to account for the cosmic noise absorption and maximum auroral luminosity recorded at South Pole. Photometer, all-sky camera, riometer, and magnetometer data are used to estimate the velocity of motion and spatial extent of the auroral precipitation and the ionospheric currents associated with the surge.