FRANKLIN INST RESEARCH LABS ROCKVILLE MD SCIENCE INFORMATION SERVICES DEPT
Literature is reviewed 75 references covering analysis, physical and chemical properties, human and animal toxicology, mammalian pharmacokinetics, industrial standards and occupational hazards of diesel fuel and white smoke an aerosol mixture of diesel fuel, additives, diesel engine exhaust and pyrolysis products, Diesel fuel is an aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixture obtained from the straight-run distillation of petroleum and often blended with cracked fuels. Composition is controlled only by physical properties boiling range, flash point, viscosity, cetane number additives improve combustibility, reduce corrosiveness and reduce gum formation. The smoke is generated by feeding diesel fuel into the exhaust manifold of a diesel engine, creating a vapor which condenses into an opaque mass of microdroplets which may be useful in screening military equipment and personnel. The health hazards of exposure to white smoke have not been studied, although pure diesel fuel aerosols do not appear to be irritating to the respiratory tract or skin of humans during acute exposures to relatively low concentrations. Dermatitis following direct contact with diesel fuel is reportedly due to a combination of poor occupational hygiene and constitutional factors. Ingestion of diesel fuel results in gastritis and patchy destruction of the gastric mucosa.