The major objective of the studies has been to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying induction of immunity. The studies suggest that residual antigen is a major driving force for the immune response that that serum antibody can interact with such residual antigen and suppress the stimulation. It was found that IgG antibody is more effective than IgM antibody in suppression. The nature of immunologic memory was extensively studied and it was found that IgM-immunologic memory is short-lived in contrast to IgG-memory. The molecular basis of antibody formation was studied using normal lymphoid tissue as well as clones of murine myeloma cells. The sites of synthesis and intracellular transport of immunoglobulin in plasma cells was elucidated. The final phase of the work led to an examination of the antibody receptors on B cells.