This document presents the results of a project titled U.S.-Russia Long Term Competition, sponsored by the Deputy Chief of Staff, G-357, U.S. Army. The purpose of the project was to help the U.S. Army understand the shifting relative capabilities of the U.S. and Russian militaries of the next twenty years. The Project Unique Identification Code PUIC for the project that produced this document is HQD167556. This research was conducted within the RAND Arroyo Centers Strategy, Doctrine, and Resources Program. RAND Arroyo Center, part of the RAND Corporation, is a federally funded research and development center FFRDC sponsored by the United States Army. RAND operates under a Federal-Wide Assurance FWA00003425 and complies with the Code of Federal Regulations for the Protectionof Human Subjects Under United States Law 45 CFR 46, also knownas the Common Rule, as well as with the implementation guidance set forth in DoD Instruction 3216.02. As applicable, this compliance includes reviews and approvals by RANDs Institutional Review Board the Human Subjects Protection Committee and by the U.S. Army.