The fate of Mosul, Iraqs second-largest city, its largest Sunni-majority city, and the largest city captured by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria ISIS, is critical to efforts to permanently defeat the terrorist group and create a stable Iraq. This report focuses on the aftermath of the major combat operations in Mosul, the management of civilian needs including returning home after displacement, and the requirements for achieving lasting stability in Mosul and other combat-affected areas of Iraq. The authors conducted extensive field research in Iraq at the local and national levels, including case studies of stabilization efforts after battles in major urban centers such as Ramadi, Fallujah, and Tikrit. The issues identified as related to Mosul also mirror the broader requirements for stability throughout the conflict-affected areas of Iraq. In addition, many of the challenges and solutions identified will require action by the national government and policies that address the underlying issues, whether they pertain to sufficient prioritization and funding of programs, development of adequate professional security forces, or reconciliation measures to resolve conflicts among Iraqs principal political groups. The recommendations and prioritization scheme offered in the final chapter are thus directed at the national government of Iraq and the key stakeholders in the international community. The report should be helpful to planning efforts by the U.S., Iraqi, and Kurdistan regional governments, as well as the international community, which is playing a significant role through the United Nations, the Global Coalition to Counter ISIS, and bilateral efforts.