Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division China Lake United States
UFOUOUnexploded ordnance UXO resulting from munitions failures creates significant safety and environmental hazards. Smaller munitions, such as BLU-97 bomblets, are notorious for their tendency to dud Pellerin, 2006. A typical submunition fill, such as PBXN-107, uses cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine RDX in an acrylate binder as the main explosive component. RDX is persistent in the environment and is prevalent on and near Department of Defense DoD training ranges Pennington et al., 2006 Jenkins et al., 2006. The Environmental Protection Agency EPA has issued a drinking water guideline limit for RDX of 2 gL. As a potential solution to the persistent environmental problems of UXO, cyclic N,N-dinitrourea derivatives may provide an attractive replacement for currently used energetics like RDX. Many cyclic N,N-dinitrourea derivatives have similar explosive performance parameters to RDX but are more hydrolytically reactive. The objective of this project was to develop and characterize an energetic fill formulation incorporating cyclic N,N-dinitrourea derivatives as a replacement for currently used energetics like cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine RDX. This energetic fill would readily decompose into benign products when exposed to moisture i.e., high humidity or precipitation.Three cyclic N,N-dinitrourea derivatives were investigated for use in self-remediating energetic fills tetranitroglycoluril TNGU, hexanitrohexaazatricyclododecanedione HHTDD, and 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-2,4,8,10-tetraazaspiro5.5undecane-3,9-dione TNSUK. TNGU was chosen for scale-up because of its straightforward synthesis, rapid degradation under humid conditions, relative stability in dry conditions, and explosive performance greater than RDX detonation pressure and detonation velocity.