US Army School for Advanced Military Studies Fort Leavenworth United States
How does the US Army negotiate the challenge of arranging tactical actions in complex environments against hybrid threats to achieve strategic objectives To address this question and confront assumptions and current methods of thinking, there is a need for a holistic and human centered approach in strategy development and operational art. This demands fuller integration of the Army Design Methodology ADM and the Military Decision Making Process MDMP. This monograph proposes a way of thinking and planning that goes beyond current Army doctrinal methodologies to address the changing character of warfare. A review of human centered design provides a theoretical foundation for this cognitive method followed by an examination of the relationship between strategy, tactics, and operational art. A discussion of uncertainty and complexity theory supports the argument for greater inclusion of conceptual planning and a human centered approach. A review of the ADM identifies areas within conceptual planning that are useful in the MDMP, which indicates conceptual and detailed planning is complementary and overlapping. Recommendations emerge for full integration of the ADM and the MDMP to avoid marginalization of conceptual planning and the inclusion of a self framing step to the ADM. This acknowledges the synergistic relationship between conceptual and detailed planning.