This thesis is a two-party study that analyzed a compressed air storage system using fundamental thermodynamic principles and designed the compression phase using commercial-off-the-shelf components. The analysis for this system used a novel control-mass methodology that allowed both isentropic and isothermal work and heat transfer processes to be calculated using end states. The resulting formulas provide a rigorously derived yet straightforward benchmark for the upper limits of efficiency in such systems. The design portion of this study lays the groundwork for building the compression phase of a solar-powered compressed air energy storage system that will integrate a rotary compressor, ultracapacitors, and a turbocharger to serve as proof-of-concept for an environmentally friendly energy storage system that can effectively utilize energy provided by solar radiation. Once implemented, this systems practicality has the potential to spur the use of solar panels on Department of Defense shore installations without the side effect of relying on rare-earth materials for energy storage.