Illicit arms are responsible for high death rates in the Great Lakes region. The phenomenon of small arms and light weapons SALW proliferation owes to historical factors, porous borders, and the prevalence of regional armed conflicts that offer markets for illicit arms and is compounded by poor arms management and control measures within the region. The effects of SALW on the social, economic, and political arenas in Uganda and in other states in the region are enormous. Ad hoc measures and the lack of regional consensus in implementation allow illicit arms to flow to homegrown terrorists. Although not the only cause of homegrown terrorism, SALW have remained a significant driver in creating a fragile security environment in which homegrown terrorism thrives. This thesis addresses the causes and effects of SALW proliferation in Uganda and the Great Lakes region. Specifically, it explores the nexus between homegrown terrorism and SALW proliferation. The study concludes by providing policy recommendations to combat homegrown terrorism and the effects of SALW proliferation in Uganda and the Great Lakes region.