During the lifetime of this project, the research team significantly advanced the state of understanding of modulated polarimeter systems for active and passive, imaging- and non-imaging polarimetry. Modulated polarimeters infer the polarization state of light by creating a set of polarization-dependent carriers that are modulated by the intensity signal. These carriers can be created in any independent domain, such as time, space, wavenumber, angle of incidence, and they can be created in combinations of domains simultaneously. The work supported on this project has solidified the theory behind such instruments, allowing for new design philosophies that improve state-of-the-art instruments. When the project began five years ago, only a cursory understanding of modulated instruments existed, and the data reduction matrix was the primary means of processing polarization data. In this project, the DRM has been expanded to include a full functional formalism, allowing for a range of new tools in polarimeter design to be brought to bear. During the course of this project, five PhD students, seven MS students, and two undergraduates were trained. Four PhD dissertations were primarily supported by funding from this project.