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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ANGULAR ESTIMATION AS A FUNCTION OF METHOD OF STIMULUS PRESENTATION AND MODE OF RESPONSE
MITRE CORP BEDFORD MA
Four studies of factors influencing accuracy as well as magnitude and direction of constant bias in angular estimation are reported. The parameters investigated were method of presenting stimuli and mode of subjects response. Ambiguities in the results of previous similar investigations are discussed, and previous results compared with those obtained in the present study. It was found that subjects could be classified as either high- or low-accuracy in angular estimation. The highaccuracy group showed no difference in level of accuracy in the four experiments, maintaining approximately 80 accuracy of judgment regardless of mode of response or method of presentation. The low- accuracy group was more accurate when there was a reference standard and when the response mode was manual adjustment rather than verbal. The low-accuracy group just reached the 75 accuracy level, using the knob manualadjustment mode of response, and was much below this level using other methods. No significant constant bias was found in the high-accuracy group for any of the four experimental methods. In the low-accuracy group, significant underestimations and variability of judgment were noted. The low-accuracy group had the least constant error when using a manualadjustment knob mode of response with reference standard. A control is described that is necessary for accurate determination of direction of constant bias in experiments involving three-dimensional stimuli for angular estimation. Criteria for identification of characteristically high-accuracy subjects are given. Methods for obtaining highly accurate angular estimations for an unselected population are recommended.
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