This paper outlines the nature of the systems approach as it relates to instruction. A general, but operational, model of instruction as a tutorial system is presented. The schematics of an actual computer assisted instructional model known as SOCRATES are described. The model is cybernetic. It also relates the learners characteristics to teaching decisions and in this sense it is idiographic. In addition, it performs the necessary functions for highly adaptive instruction with instructional objectives. As implemented in SOCRATES, this involves a three-process cycle. The first of these consists of the pretutorial decisions which match individual differences among learners. The second of these consists of tutorial decisions which are implementation of a specific set of rules. The third of these consists of the changing of tutorial decisions which involves the substitution of a set of rules whenever the previous set fails to produce the desired performance. Six studies are reported relating to the idiographic model Study 1 and 2 on sequencing Study 3 on encoding Study 4 and 5 on personality and programming decisions Study 6 on individualizing the performance task. Author
Presented at the 4th Symposium on Teaching Machines, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Programmierte Instruktion e.V., Duesseldorf, Germany, Mar 10-12, 1966.