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PARAMETRIC FORMULAS FOR GEODESIC CURVES AND DISTANCES ON A SLIGHTLY OBLATE EARTH
AIR FORCE CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LABS HANSCOM AFB MA
Approximate expressions for geodesic curves and the geodesic arc-lengths are obtained by straight forward methods which permit upper bounds of error to be established analytically. The errors are typically less than 1.4 parts per million, and even higher accuracy is possible with additional corrections. Selected numerical examples are given, and calculated arc-lengths are compared with values obtained with Andoyers approximate formula.