Hypochlorite Solution as a Decontaminant in Sulfur Mustard Contaminated Skin Defects in the Euthymic Hairless Guinea Pig
ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF CHEMICAL DEFENSE ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD
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Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite 0.5 and 2.5 solutions, calcium hypochlorite 0.5 and 2.5 solutions and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard HD. Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs EHGP n6 were exposed to 0.4 LD50 HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect i.e., wound. Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding undecontaminated but exposed control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or HD-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.
- Medicine and Medical Research
- Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare