Tidal Water and Ice Dynamics in the Arctic Ocean,
ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC RESEARCH INST LENINGRAD (USSR)
Pagination or Media Count:
To model the tides of the Arctic Ocean, one uses a two-dimensional non-linear model for water, which takes into account the effects of astronomical factors, the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, the earths tides, the effects of loading and self-gravitations, and a non-linear model of ice drift, which allows internal stresses in the ice cover. At the interface of two media, the friction, proportional to the second power of the difference between the water and ice velocities, is prescribed. The calculations of the propagation of diurnal Kl, 01 and semi-diurnal M2, S2 waves of the tidal potential are given. The accuracy of the modeling was estimated at 94 points at the coast. Mean square root errors in calculating the amplitude were 0.054, 0.023, 0.013 and 0.014 m, and 26 deg, 15 deg, 28 deg and 30 deg for the phase of the M2, S2, K1, 01 waves, respectively. It is shown that semi-diurnal oscillations are generated by waves penetrating from the Atlantic Ocean and by the local resonance in some areas. The diurnal oscillations are generated by tide-forming forces in the ocean itself and they attenuate under conditions of anti-resonance. Due to friction in the ocean, about 262 x 1016 erg s-I of energy is dissipated. The maximum amount of energy is spent in the North Sea 16, the White Sea 14, Baffin Bay 13, the Barents Sea 11 , and the Arctic Seas 7.
- Atmospheric Physics
- Physical and Dynamic Oceanography
- Snow, Ice and Permafrost