Undulators as a Primary Source of Coherent X-Rays.
CALIFORNIA UNIV BERKELEY LAWRENCE BERKELEY LAB
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Coherent x-rays have long been sought as a tool to discover microscopic details of physical and biological assemblies. Such radiation would permit biologists, chemists and physicists to probe with spatial resolutions better than 1,000 A perhaps 10 to 100 A in special circumstances, and with an ability to distinguish concentrations of specific atomic elements. It has been prevailing view that such radiation, when available, would emanate from an atomic x ray laser. Although that is possible, we are coming to realize that to a large degree these needs will first be satisfied by coherent x rays generated through the interaction of relativistic electron beams of very high brightness with periodic magnet structures undulators. Within the next 2-5 years it will be possible with undulators and monochromators to generate x-rays at substantial peak and average powers, with thousands of wavelengths of longitudinal coherence, full spatial coherence, complete polarization control and broad tunability at megahertz repetition rates.