LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LAB CA
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While most laboratories use more and more expensive equipment for their analyse, this speaker insists on delaying progress by using ultrasimple equipment, available in any laboratory, to perform potentiometric titrations. While not all the data presented will be pertinent to the propellants andor explosives analyst, we hope to demonstrate that established standard methods need not necessarily always be followed. We have used hyperbole in our title to get your attention we will endeavor to show, however, and have done so extemporaneously in this forum in the past that knives, forks, beer cans, pencils can indeed be used as potentiometric sensors. This will be shown for the following titrations Fluoride vs F-precipitating species such as La3, Aluminum vs fluoride pertinent to propellants, Phosphate vs Pb2, La3, Ce3, Halides vs Ag, Sulfate vs Ba2 and Pb2. Potentiometric titrations can be carried out with very simple equipment a pHmillivolt meter, a buret, a sensing electrode, and a reference electrode. We investigated metallic sensors such as copper, stainless steel, and aluminum for the potentiometric titration of some common anions fluoride, halides, sulfate, and orthophosphate.