Timing of Spacecraft Data,
EUROPEAN SPACE OPERATIONS CENTER DARMSTADT (GERMANY F R)
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The time accuracy requirements for various European Space Agency ESA missions are analysed the requirements are grouped by the type of mission. The evolution of satellite timing techniques since 1968 is shown, and the requirements for future ESA missions until the late 80s are assessed. Timing systems and their configuration at various ESA ground stations and the operations control centres are described. Two studies on future techniques in the field of time dissemination and time synchronisation conclude this paper The LASSO mission Laser Synchronisation from Stationary Orbit and a low-cost time dissemination technique using METEOSAT, the european meteorological satellites, are briefly outlined.