Differential Equations of the Vehicle's Linear Motion: Mathematical Solution and Experimental Approaches,
MINISTERO DELLA DIFESA ESERCITO ROME (ITALY)
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With a reference which shows three oriented cartesian axes constrained to a vehicle and with the origin coinciding with the center of mass, it will be taken in consideration only the horizontal straight longitudinal motion along the axis of x. In this case, the vertical components of support reaction will balance the weight, while the horizontal components of the forces involved will be only the drawbar forces, the motion resistances and the inertial masses. The rolling resistance and drag have a fairly complex nature in practice they are difficult to separate because this requires complicated devices and procedures. For this reason, on the basis of theoretical considerations and numerous tests, many authors have formulated several synthetic expression for the combined calculation of the rolling resistance and drag.