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Laboratory and Field Observations Related to Ice Particle and Aircraft Charging in Convective Storms,
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION HUNTSVILLE AL GEORGE C MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER
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Laboratory studies of graupel particle charging in simulated cloud conditions show the need for the presence of ice crystals and cloud water simultaneously except under conditions where secondary ice crystal production occurs, when charging initially occurs in the absence of ice crystals. The magnitude of the charging increases with size of ice crystal, and impact velocity it is also sensitive to impurities. The magnitude of the charge is also sensitive to temperature and the sign changes between -10 and -20 deg C, depending on cloud liquid water content. Aircraft studies were carried out in Montana convective clouds to test the validity of the extrapolation of the laboratory data to the atmosphere from the viewpoint of generation of charge, electric field, and aircraft charging during cloud penetration. Author
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE