The Future of Biological Fixed-Film Processes and Their Application to Environmental Problems,
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV PROVO UT DEPT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
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The needs and design of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities will be much different in the late 1980s than in the past. To appreciate the changes that will occur it is necessary to review the past. In both the United States and Britain the development of biological treatment progressed from sewage farms and discharge into waterways, through intermittent sand filters and contact beds, to trickling filters, activated sludge basins, rotating biological contactors, and land applications. The term Biological Fixed-Film Process is really a new name for an old process. As will soon be shown we have gone full circle and are returning the semi-passive fixed-film systems. Biological fixed-film processes have been around for a long time. While many of them have been placed on the shelf for many years, their usefulness is being reestablished, and they are being used again as a viable method of wastewater treatment.