The History of Fixed-Film Wastewater Treatment Systems,
PURDUE UNIV LAFAYETTE IN SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
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This paper has described the important historical developments of fixed-film wastewater treatment systems. Beginning in the 1860s with filtration columns, various methodologies have been developed for wastewater treatment. This paper addressed the development of such fixed-film systems like trickling filters, intermittent filtration, contact beds, hydrolytic tanks, and rotating biological contactors. This paper can not possibly include all the relevant references on fixed-film processes. Rather, the goal of this paper is to highlight the technological advances which have occurred within the field. Fluidized bed systems have not been included in this discussion. They were intentionally emitted since they are semi-suspended growth cum fixed growth systems. Figure 1 highlights the important chronological developments of fixed-film wastewater treatment systems. This figure provides a quick synopsis of the involved genealogy described in this paper.