Status of HF Radars for Wave-Height Directional Spectral Measurements
NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION BOULDER CO WAVE PROPAGATIONLAB
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This manuscript is a concise review of the status of high-frequency HF radars for measuring various descriptors of the ocean wave-height directional spectrum. It is not intended as a historical account of the many developments and contributors to the subject over the past three decades, nor is it meant to develop the theory and techniques of HF radar in sufficient detail for planning HF radar programs. Finally, no attempt is made to review every MF HF experiment performed or analyzed, although several very clever techniques have been tried e.g., bistatic arrangements, synthetic aperture systems, and balloon-borne antennas rather, techniques are discussed that appear to have potential for practical, operational ocean monitoring. The next section reviews very briefly the principles of HF radar sea echo that make it possible to measure the wave-height directional spectrum. The section following discusses the capability and status of sky-wave over-the-horizon radar for making wide- area ocean surface measurements. The final section discusses the application of HF ground-wave radars to measuring the wave-height directional spectrum, both for coastal use and for deployment from offshore platforms or ships, and their accuracy. In all cases, the limitations as well as the advantages of HF radars are indicated.
- Physical and Dynamic Oceanography
- Radiofrequency Wave Propagation