Experiments in Shock Liquefaction,
MAX-PLANCK-INST FUER STROEMUNGSFORSCHUNG GOETTINGEN (GERMANY F R)
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The liquefaction shock wave, a compression shock which converts vapour into liquid, has been experimentally produced as the reflected shock at the closed end of a shock tube in test fluids with many molecular degrees of freedom. Measurements of pressure, temperature, index of refraction and shock velocity confirm the existence of the shock and its general conformity to classical Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. Normal and stereoscopic photography confirms the existence of a clear liquid phase and reveals small two-phase torus-form vortex rings, which are formed in or near the shockfront and move in the same direction as, but less rapidly than the shock wave, i.e., the rings move away from the closed end of the shock tube. If the fluid behind the shock is a mixture of droplets and vapour partial liquefaction evidence of shock splitting at the phase boundary is found.