Shock Strength Modification for Reduced Heat Transfer to Lifting Re-Entry Vehicles,
MINISTRY OF DEFENCE LONDON (ENGLAND)
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Experiments at typical lifting re-entry conditions 6 M infinity 22 and 25 deg alpha 70 deg confirm theoretical predictions that delta wings and related vehicle configurations having wholly or partly concave undersurfaces that is regions of undersurface anhedral produce higher CL max, and higher CL at given LD, than flat wings of identical planform. This enhanced aerodynamic performance derives from the strengthening of the lifting surface shock wave which results from flow containment. In this paper, the importance of shock wave stand-off angle is explained by reference to its relationship to heat transfer rates and selected shock and force data from hypersonic wind tunnel tests ae presented for a wide range of model plan-form and anhedral distribution. Available measurements showing heat transfer to concave undersurfaces are presented. Configurations based on the Space Shuttle orbiter and concepts for S.S.T.O. are described.