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Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase 1. Acute Oral Toxicity Primary Skin and Eye Irritation, Dermal Sensitization, and Disposition and Metabolism

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Final rept. no. 1, 1 Apr 1974-31 May 1975

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Relatively pure trinitrotoluene TNT and its dinitroisomers 2,3- DNT, 2,4-DNT, 2,5-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and 3,4-DNT, trinitroglycerin TNG and its dinitroisomers 1,2-DNT and 1,3-DNT, and mononitroisomers 1-MNG and 2-MNG, nitrocellulose NC, and white phosphorus WP, were obtained commercially or synthesized for acute oral toxicity, primary skin and eye irritation, and dermal sensitization studies. C14-labelled nitrotoluenes and nitroglycerins and P32 were used for the study of disposition and metabolism. Acute oral LD50s of the various compounds were studied in rats and mice of both sexes. NC was practically nontoxic, WP was highly toxic, and the other compounds were moderately toxic. The rats were generally more sensitive than the mice. There were no obvious sex differences. Among the nitrotoluenes, 2,4-DNT, 2,5-DNT, and 2,6-DNT were more toxic than TNT in rats 2,5-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and 3,4-DNT were more toxic, and 2,3-DNT and 2,5-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and 3,4-DNT were mere toxic, and 2,3-DNT and 2,4-DNT were slightly less toxic than TNT in mice. Among the nitroglycerins, 1-MNG was more toxic, and both DNGS were less toxic than TNG in rats 1,3-DNG was more toxic, and 1-MNG was less toxic than TNG in mice. 2-MNG was practically nontoxic to both rats and mice. Rats and mice receiving toxic doses of nitrotoluenes and nitroglycerins exhibited ataxia, respiratory depression, and cyanosis. TNT and 3,4-DNT also caused coordinated and symmetrical convulsions. Death occurred within 24 hours with the nitrotoluenes, TNG, and 1,2-DNG and between 3 and 6 days for 1,3-DNG and 1-MNG.

Subject Categories:

  • Toxicology
  • Pyrotechnics

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