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Demonstration of Regenerable, Large-Scale Ion Exchange System Using WBA Resin in Rialto, CA

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Final rept.

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The Department of Defense DOD has used perchlorate ClO4 as an oxidizer in ordnance items and rocket motors for over half a century. This very water soluble and environmentally persistent compound now contaminates drinking water for tens of millions of people in the United States. In 2002, the United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA released a provisional perchlorate oral reference dose RfD, which translated into a drinking water equivalent level of 1 part per billion ppb. This drinking water equivalent level was increased to 24.5 ppb following the release of a report by the National Academy of Science. On January 26, 2006, a policy on DOD required actions related to perchlorate was released by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense establishing 24 ppb as the current level of concern for managing perchlorate. The State of California has a proposed maximum contaminant level MCL of 6 ppb. The cost for DOD to achieve compliance with these drinking water limits has been estimated to be in the billions of dollars. The current approach is treatment by either ion exchange or biological processes. The ion exchange approach is favored for groundwater and drinking water applications. Existing ion exchange technologies in use today include regenerable ion exchange processes that use salt as the regenerating agent, such as the Calgon ISEP process and other, more conventional lead-lag processes. The non-selective regenerable systems require frequent regeneration and generate large volumes of salt brine containing high concentrations of nitrate, sulfate and perchlorate. The operation and maintenance OM cost from frequent regenerations is high. In addition, the waste stream generated is becoming more difficult to dispose. Existing ion exchange technologies also include single-use ion exchange processes that use strong base anion resins. After perchlorate loading capacity is reached, the single-use resins must be removed from the ion exchange vessel

Subject Categories:

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Water Pollution and Control

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