A Band of Surgeons, a Long Healing Line: Development of Craniofacial Surgery in Response to Armed Conflict
ARMY INST OF SURGICAL RESEARCH FORT SAM HOUSTON TX
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Far removed from modern perceptions of cosmetic surgery, plastic and craniofacial surgery largely began centuries ago with efforts to redeem the destruction and loss from battlefield violence. Successive generations of surgeons responding with compassion to the functional and aesthetic loss of those wounded in war have achieved the progress that benefits 21st century patients. Although the historic role of war has to a degree been supplanted by jet travel, electronic communications, and academic medical centers, leadership continues to be the primary force responsible for advances. This article outlines the evolution of modern craniofacial surgery in 4 phases described by the Latin terms pluresartes, plurestelae, pluraloca, and pluresfontes .
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Medicine and Medical Research
- Weapons Effects (Biological)
- Military Forces and Organizations