Double-crested Cormorant Management Plan to Reduce Predation of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary
CORPS OF ENGINEERS PORTLAND OR NORTH PACIFIC DIV
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In this Final Environmental Impact Statement, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Corps has evaluated several alternatives to reduce predation-related losses of juvenile salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss from double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus nesting on East Sand Island in the Columbia River Estuary. Many of these juvenile salmon and steelhead referred to collectively hereafter as salmonids Figure ES-1 are listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Development and implementation of a management plan to reduce avian predation is a requirement from the Corps consultation under the Endangered Species Act with the National Marine Fisheries Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Fisheries for the operation of the hydropower dams that make up the Federal Columbia River Power System. The proposed management plan in this Final Environmental Impact Statement was developed to comply with reasonable and prudent alternative action 46 in the 2008 and associated 2010 and 2014 Supplements to the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion issued by NOAA Fisheries.