The Montenegrin-Albanian Campaign in 1916: The Last Successful Unilateral Campaign of Austria-Hungary
ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS
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The thesis examines what factors prevented the Austro-Hungarian forces from capturing all of Albania in 1916. The Montenegrin-Albanian campaign was executed unilaterally by Austro-Hungarian forces but in a joint environment. In November 1915 the Central Powers decisively defeated the Serbian Army, and Austria-Hungary was keen on continuing the Balkan offensive. This campaign consist of three elements the Montenegrin operation, the Albanian operation and the supporting naval operation. Montenegro was a small country, but its mountainous terrain and fierce soldiers made their defeat challenging. The decisive factor was the use of artillery and a good plan. Montenegro fell in twelve days. The naval operation designed to prevent the Serbian Armys evacuation failed due to the passivity of the Austro-Hungarian Navys leadership. During the Albanian operation the advancing troops had extreme difficulties with the terrain, weather and the supply. As the forces reached the Vojusa River, the Austro-Hungarian forces logistically culminated. The frontline stabilized for two years. The campaign was successful, although many opportunities were lost. As a consequence, the Serbian forces were rebuilt, later decisively influencing the Balkan theatre. Furthermore, the Entente Powers built up the Otranto barrage, a naval blockade, disrupting the Central Powers submarines lines of communication.
- Humanities and History
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics