Monitoring Non-Invasive Cardiac Output and Stroke Volume during Experimental Human Hypovolaemia and Resuscitation
ARMY INST OF SURGICAL RESEARCH FORT SAM HOUSTON TX
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Background. Multiple methods for non-invasive measurement of cardiac output CO and stroke volume SV exist. Their comparative capabilities are not clearly established. Methods. Healthy human subjects n21 underwent central hypovolaemia through progressive lower body negative pressure LBNP until the onset of presyncope, followed by termination of LBNP, to simulate complete resuscitation. Measurement methods were electrical bioimpedance EBI of the thorax and three measurements of CO and SV derived from the arterial blood pressure ABP waveform the Modelflow MF method, the long-time interval LTI method, and pulse pressure PP. We computed areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves ROC AUCs for the investigational metrics, to determine how well they discriminated between every combination of LBNP levels. Results. LTI and EBI yielded similar reductions in SV during progressive hypovolaemia and resuscitation correlation coefficient 0.83 with ROC AUCs for distinguishing major LBNP -60 mm Hg vs resuscitation 0 mm Hg of 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. MF yielded very similar reductions and ROC AUCs during progressive hypovolaemia, but after resuscitation, MF-CO did not return to baseline, yielding lower ROC AUCs DROC AUC range, -0.18 to -0.26, P0.01. PP declined during hypovolaemia but tended to be an inferior indicator of specific LBNP levels, and PP did not recover during resuscitation, yielding lower ROC curves P0.01. Conclusions. LTI, EBI, and MF were able to track progressive hypovolaemia. PP decreased during hypovolaemia but its magnitude of reduction underestimated reductions in SV. PP and MF were inferior for the identification of resuscitation.
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Medicine and Medical Research