Blast-Induced Moderate Neurotrauma (BINT) Elicits Early Complement Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFalpha) Release in a Rat Brain
ARMY INST OF SURGICAL RESEARCH FORT SAM HOUSTON TX
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Blast induced neurotrauma BINT is a major medical concern yet its etiology is largely undefined. Complement activation may play a role in the development of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury however, its role in BINT is still undefined. The present study was designed to characterize the complement system and adaptive immune inflammatory responses in a rat model of moderate BINT. Anesthetized rats were exposed to a moderate blast 120 kPa using an air driven shock tube. Brain tissue in jury, systemic and local complement, cerebral edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and pro inflammatory cytokine production were measured at 0.5, 3, 48, 72, 120, and 168 h. Injury to brain tissue was evaluated by histological evaluation. Systemic complement was measured via ELSIA. The remaining measurements were determined by immunohistoflourescent staining. Moderate blast triggers moderate brain injuries, elevated levels of local brain C3C5b 9 and systemic C5b 9, increased leukocyte infiltration, unregulated tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF , and aquaporin 4 in rat brain cortex at 3 and 48 hour post blast. Early immune inflammatory response to BINT involves complement and TNF , which correlates with hippocampus and cerebral cortex damage. Complement and TNF activation may be a novel therapeutic target for reducing the damaging effects of BINT inflammation.
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Medicine and Medical Research