Venous Thromboembolism during Combat Operations: A 10-y Review
ARMY INST OF SURGICAL RESEARCH FORT SAM HOUSTON TX
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Background This article examines the incidence of venous thromboembolism VTE in combat wounded, identifies risk factors for pulmonary embolism PE, and compares the rate of PE in combat with previously reported civilian data. Methods A retrospective review was performed of all U.S. military combat casualties in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom with a VTE recorded in the Department of Defense Trauma Registry from September 2001 to July 2011. The Military Amputation Database of all U.S. military amputations during the same 10 y period was also reviewed. Demographic data, injury characteristics, and outcomes were evaluated. Results Among 26,634 subjects, 587 2.2 had a VTE. This number included 270 subjects 1.0 with deep venous thrombosis DVT, 223 0.8 with PE, and 94 0.4 with both DVT and PE. Lower extremity amputation was independently associated with PE odds ratio OR, 1.70 95 confidence interval CI, 1.07 2.69. A total of 1003 subjects suffered a lower ex tremity amputation, with 174 17 having a VTE. Of these, 75 subjects 7.5 were having DVT, 70 7.0 were having PE, and 29 2.9 were found to have both a DVT and a PE. Risk factors found to be independently associated with VTE in amputees were multiple amputations OR, 2 95 CI, 1.35 3.42 and above the knee amputation OR, 2.11 95 CI, 1.3 3.32. Conclusions Combat wounded are at a high risk for thromboembolic complications with the highest risk associated with multiple or above the knee amputations.
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Medicine and Medical Research